Virtiva® overview


Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an endogenously occurring phospholipid and it is the major acidic phospholipid in the brain (1). Phospholipids and in PS, even if in quantatively modest amount, make up the basic structural components of the cell membrane (2). PS is unique amongst phospholipids as it plays a role in regulating the function of key cell membrane proteins (3) and acts as an essential enzyme co-factor for a number of cellular proteins (4). PS is essential for the general homeostasis of cells, including entry of nutrients, and also for a number of other cellular functions, such as nerve transmitter release, signal transduction (5-8) and determination of neuronal membrane surface potential (2). The proper functioning of these processes is of ultimate importance, especially in the central nervous system.
Oral supplementation of PS has been shown to affect neuronal membranes, cell metabolism, and specific neurotransmitter systems, including acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine (9-12). Numerous clinical trials have established that PS plays a significant benefit for cognition, especially those functions that tend to decline with age, including memory, learning, vocabulary skills, and concentration (1).

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  5. Bruni A, Toffano G. 1982. Lysophosphatidylserine, a short-lived intennediate with plasma membrane regulatory properties. Pharmacol Res Commull 14(6): 469-484.
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  7. Moynagh PN, Williams DC. 1992. Stabilization of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine acceptor by specific phospholipids Biochem Pharmacol 43(9): 1939-1945.
  8. Cohen SA, Mueller WE. 1992. Age related alterations in the mouse forebrain: partial restoration by chronic phosphatidylserine treatment. Brain Res 584: 174-180.
  9. Crook TH, Tinklenberg J 1. , Yesavage J, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology 1991;41:644-649.
  10. Amaducci L, Crook TH, Lippi A, et al. Use of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s Disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1991;640:245-249.
  11. Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano) 1993;5:123-133.
  12. Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacol Bull 1992;28:61-66.